Rapid commercial transformation in the neighbourhood has set the table for social change. But is gentrification on the menu?
By Sean Lee and Lawrence Xi
Written for the Cities and Social Change module, students are tasked to investigate a physical and social change in a street, neighbourhood or city of their choice.
Named after the Hokkien word for ‘end’ and Malay word for ‘new’, Tiong Bahru is sited on a former 19th-century cemetery. Away from the bustling streets of downtown Singapore, it’s been a sleepy, working-class enclave for decades.
Entering the historic neighbourhood, eclectic Art-Deco walk-up apartments contrast starkly with Modernist high-rise public housing ubiquitous anywhere else in Singapore. As if stepping back in time, grandmothers push grocery trolleys down the sidewalk, holding bouquets of flowers wrapped in yesterday’s tabloids. Birds flit about balcony gardens, while the soft smell of incense wafts through bamboo blinds. We nod at an old man peeking out from his window, who reciprocates with a toothless grin. A vintage pastel Volkswagen Beetle parked along the street completes our ‘Casablanca-esque’ backdrop.
Old vs. New: Social dynamics evolve in this rapidly-changing neighbourhood
So rustic were Tiong Bahru’s charms that Singapore’s Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) awarded it conservancy status in 2003 . This neighbourhood isn’t frozen in time though. Strolling along narrow Yong Siak Street, we spot a dingy-looking shop crammed with wood scraps and unsold furniture. Next door, congratulatory bouquets sit proudly outside a newly-opened Greek restaurant selling kebabs at triple-digit prices. The URA’s gazetting kick-started a revitalisation - art galleries, upscale cafes and lifestyle boutiques have since sprung up alongside existing businesses . Today, Tiong Bahru is well-known for its eclectic patchwork of old and new, standing testament to its oxymoronic name.
Now a tourist and hipster haunt, the cafes and boutique shops here enjoy thriving business. Their success creates a virtuous cycle attracting similar businesses, resulting in the spatial concentration of these establishments. Fast forward a decade, and you get “one of the world’s coolest neighbourhoods”, as fashion magazine Vogue highlighted .
However, not everyone is a winner. The sprouting of artisanal shops and eateries has been chipping away at local businesses as landlords hike rentals to eye-watering levels. This sentiment is reflected by Mr Lim, who has served food for the last 60 years at a kopitiam (local food court). “Rents are getting higher, but many people visit the area for cafés, not our [traditional fare]” , he says, wiping a sweat-stained brow amidst the tropical heat.
He points down the street. “There was a mamak (mom-and-pop store) there, and another small kopitiam down the lane. They closed 10 years ago because rent basically doubled.” He puts down his half-empty cup of kopi (black coffee) with a little more force than necessary. We sense an undertone of agitation - perhaps we hit a raw nerve. “Maybe I’m next. How can I possibly make ends meet?”
It’s not just business owners - displacement of heritage trades have caused concern to long-time residents like Yvonne, who believe the contentious surplus of upscale restaurants and cafés do little to serve local residents’ needs. “I grew up here. It was a much quieter place. No hipster cafes, no large crowds. Just a few small stores for our daily needs. But now, there’s only one provision shop left, and cafes are far too expensive. How many cafes selling S$20 (£12) breakfasts do you need?”  She lets out a sigh of exasperation.
The neighbourhood’s growing status as an up-and-coming destination turned it to a magnet for well-heeled expatriates and young professionals, who adore trendy, modern-luxe cafes like the Tiong Bahru Bakery.
World’s coolest neighbourhood: Upscale cafés displace older businesses
We spot Peter, who moved here from the UK with his girlfriend earlier this year. Basking in the gentle morning light, he gestures for a waiter, ordering a skinny latte - with non-GMO soy milk, of course. “We’ve always dreamed of living here at the heart of the action, with so many cafés at our doorstep” . He takes a sip, leaning back into the rattan armchair with a disarming smile. “Trust me, anyone would fall in love with this place. It’s a highly sought-after [address].”
It’s important to note that residents aren’t being forced out. With homeownership as the single dominant tenure mode in Tiong Bahru’s public housing blocks, potential incomers move in only if owners choose to rent or sell, an increasingly attractive proposition amidst skyrocketing property values.
Back with Yvonne, she recounts how her parents chatted with neighbours over kopi at a kopitiam near their home, yet it shuttered for yet another artisanal cafe in 2010. “Losing that place with all its memories is bad enough. We still live here, but with all these people [coming in], we just don’t feel at home.” With beloved places turning to spaces of exclusion, it’s crystal-clear that Tiong Bahru’s many ageing residents, despite not being forcibly displaced as one might observe in neighbourhoods experiencing residential gentrification, have still been heavily impacted by rapid transformation.
We visit the café in question for a closer look. An elderly man ambles down the sidewalk, meandering between alfresco café seating and boisterous young adults bustling by. He peers curiously into the storefront, gaze lingering on café-goers sipping on overpriced cappuccinos. A longtime resident, 72-year old Mr Oei believes that although a significant original resident demographic remains, the influx of younger residents has eroded the estate’s neighbourly, laid-back charm. “This place has changed. I miss the kampung (community) spirit - the new residents don’t join us for anything” .
He tells us about the gap in interaction between ‘insiders’ and ‘outsiders’ here, who have conflicting views on how their neighbourhood develops. While expatriates and newer residents want curated, chic lifestyle establishments, it seems that many longtime residents are simply concerned about the diminishing sense of familiarity they have here, amidst rapid physical and cultural changes tugging at the neighbourhood’s socio-spatial fabric.
All you knead is love
Yet not all hope is lost. Grassroots organisations like Seng Poh Residential Committee and Tiong Bahru Community Centre bridge this gap between different social groups. A quick scroll through their Facebook pages reveals a cornucopia of initiatives planned for residents. These organisations often collaborate to hold regular block parties, neighbourhood cleaning events and celebrations. Even the pandemic couldn’t stop these - annual National Day festivities were moved online, complete with video showcases featuring the community and live performances by Tiong Bahru’s residents .
In another act of community solidarity, volunteers gathered together, conducting house visits for the area’s many elderly residents, passing them care packages to weather these trying times . Grassroots events have promoted community spirit and established neighbourhood support systems to much success, judging by the number of appreciative comments left by thankful residents.
Left behind: The elderly demographic is disproportionately impacted
Local nonprofit ‘My Community’ also organises monthly guided tours around Tiong Bahru. Passionate grassroots volunteers walk us through the architectural wealth present, weaving in historic anecdotes that provide valuable insight on how daily life played out in this pre-war estate .
Tiong Bahru Market, and Food Centre in particular, left a lasting impression. Right across the cluster of cafés, the market has stood strong at the heart of this estate. Starting as a small shelter, housing street food vendors in 1945, it has since evolved into a neighbourhood institution anchoring the area’s genius loci. 
With the meal averaging S$3 (£2), just about everyone can enjoy affordable local fare from some 50 food stalls located here. Indeed, Tiong Bahru Market functions as a “class-less touch-point”  for friends and family to gather, interact, and bond. In fact, with the ongoing displacement of the area’s kopitiams with upscale cafés, the market increasingly represents the only avenue of connecting with the larger community for many elderly here .
Community dining room: People from all walks of life converge here
Despite concerns over rapid commercial transformation within the neighbourhood, avenues and opportunities for forging bonds among residents clearly exist. Amidst a sea of change, community activities and shared spaces have brought together different social groups, forming neighbourly friendships to address socio-spatial exclusion and defuse social tensions which often accompany demographic change.
Soup for the Soul
We also spoke with some hawkers during the post-lunch lull. Having grown up here, 57-year old Mr Tan has sold bak kut teh (pork rib soup) for 15 years. He explains how rent control policies help him stay open. “Luckily, the government controls rentals [in the market]. My rent hasn’t increased significantly since I started. Outside? It goes up to $10,000 a month, it’s crazy!”  he chuckles, arranging the remaining cuts of meat in his chiller. “[Rent control] keeps prices low, so everyone can enjoy my food!”
Mr Tan’s boyish grin fades when asked about future plans. “It’s very busy, and I earn just enough to get by.” He furrows his brows. “It’s tough work”. But thanks to interventions like rent control and subsidies, the government ensures stallholders like Mr Tan can continue selling affordable local fare catering to local needs , making Tiong Bahru Market a steadfast foil to commercial gentrification and displacement of neighbourhood businesses observed at the cafe cluster nearby.
It’s undeniable that Tiong Bahru’s rapid transformation has impacted both the local commercial scene and social dynamics, to the benefit of some and the detriment of others. However, to answer our earlier question, it seems clear that full-blown gentrification is off the menu here. A recipe of grassroots mobilisations, cultural keystones like the Tiong Bahru Market alongside effective urban governance policies have tied the local community together, delivering social and commercial change while avoiding residential displacement or spatial exclusion.
“The area’s changed”, Mr Tan chuckles, “but the market’s still open, the people still here. That’s all I need”.
Urban Redevelopment Authority (2019). Tiong Bahru Conservation Guidebook. [online] Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). Available at: https://www.ura.gov.sg/-/media/User%20Defined/Conservation%20Portal/Guidelines/Pre-war-SIT-Flats-in-Tiong-Bahru-Conservation-Area.pdf?la=en
Woo, A. (2016). Singapore’s first public housing estate is buzzing. [online] The Straits Times. Available at: https://www.straitstimes.com/lifestyle/home-design/how-tiong-bahru-got-hip-again
Coconuts Singapore (2014). British “Vogue” names Tiong Bahru one of world’s hippest neighbourhoods. [online] Coconuts. Available at: https://coconuts.co/singapore/lifestyle/british-vogue-names-tiong-bahru-one-worlds-hippest-neighbourhoods/
Mr Lim, coffeeshop stallowner, interviewed on 15 October 2020
Yvonne Tan, longtime resident and active member in “Tiong Bahru Estate’ Facebook group, interviewed on 12 November 2020
Peter, customer at Tiong Bahru Bakery, interviewed on 8 October 2020
Mr Oei, longtime resident, interviewed 4 November 2020
Seng Poh Residents Committee (2020). Come celebrate National Day with us! Seng Poh RC Facebook Page. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/TIONGBAHRUSENGPOHRC/posts/3205937842829811
Tiong Bahru Community Centre (2020). Tiong Bahru Cares. Tiong Bahru Community Centre Facebook Page. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/TiongBahruCC/posts/3327728920682805
My Community (2020). My Tiong Bahru Heritage Tour. [online] My Community. Available at: https://mycommunity.org.sg/guided-tours/my-tiong-bahru-heritage-tour/
National Heritage Board (2018b). Tiong Bahru Market & Food Centre. [online] www.roots.gov.sg. Available at: https://www.roots.gov.sg/learn/stories/Hawker-Centres/Tiong-Bahru-Market-Food-Centre
National Heritage Board (2018a). Hawker Culture. [online] www.roots.gov.sg. Available at: https://www.roots.gov.sg/learn/resources/ich/hawker-culture
Institute of Policy Studies and Leong, C.-H. (2015). Inequality has a geographic dimension – between and within neighbourhoods in Singapore. [online] ipscommons.sg. Available at: https://ipscommons.sg/inequality-has-a-geographic-dimension-between-and-within-neighbourhoods-in-singapore/
To, K.,Chong, Z.W. and Chong, K.H. (2014). Identity of a Conserved Housing Estate in Transition: The Case of Tiong Bahru, Singapore. [online] Singapore University of Technology and Design. Available at: https://idc.sutd.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/sites/10/2014/10/2014-Identity-of-a-Conserved-Housing-Estate-in-Transition-The-Case-of-Tiong-Bahru-Singapore.pdf
Mr Tan, stallowner at Tiong Bahru Market, interviewed 8 October 2020
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Tan, S.B. and Low, D. (2015). Hawker Centre Case Study: Keeping Char Kway Teow Cheap. Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, [online] 62(12), p.1232. Available at: https://lkyspp.nus.edu.sg/docs/default-source/case-studies/hawker-centre-case-study.pdf?sfvrsn=2bc7960b_2